APA Referencing (7th edition) | Guide
How to Cite| reference
This guide summarizes the pertinent citation guidelines from the 7th edition APA Publication Manual (2020).
This citation guide summarizes the most pertinent citation guidelines from the 7th edition APA Publication Manual (2020). An APA in-text citation consists of the author’s last name and the year of publication. To avoid plagiarism, you include them whenever you quote or paraphrase someone else’s ideas or words.
There are two types of in-text citations: parenthetical and narrative. When using referencing tool (e.g.,
After labour, land, and capital, knowledge is the … (Juma, 2017).
Juma (2020) states that …
Multiple authors and organization as an author
When a source has multiple authors or an organization as an author, the in-text citation changes slightly. Take note of punctuation and the use of the ampersand (&).
|Author type||Parenthetical citation||Narrative citation|
|One author||(Juma, 2020)||Juma (2020)|
|Two authors||(Juma & Nkirote, 2020)||Juma and Nkirote (2020)|
|Three or more authors||(Juma et al., 2020)||Juma et al. (2020)|
|Organization||(Safaricom, 2020)||Safaricom (2020)|
Abbreviated group author
· First citation
· Subsequent citations
(Teachers Service Commission [TSC], 2020)
Teachers Service Commission (TSC, 2020)
When the author, date of publication, or locator are missing
|Missing element||What to do||Parenthetical citation|
|Author||Use the source title. *||(Source Title, 2020)|
|Date||Write “n.d.” for “no date”.||(Juma, n.d.)|
Either use an alternative locator
or omit the page number.
(Juma, 2020, Chapter 3) or
In-Text Citation Ambiguity
When in-text citations are ambiguous because they correspond to multiple reference entries, use the alternatives articulated in the following table.
|Multiple works by the same author in the same year.||Add a lowercase letter after the year.||
|Different authors with the same last name.||Include the authors’ initials.||
(J. Maina, 2019)
(S. N. Maina, 2016)
|Multiple works with 3+ authors that shorten to the same form (i.e., same first author(s) and date).||Include as many names as needed to distinguish the citations.||
(Juma, Lewis, et al., 2015)
(Juma, Ross, et al., 2015)
|Citing indirect sources (“as cited in”)||
Use the original or primary source.
Or cite it through the secondary source that led you to it, using the phrase “as cited in”.
(Juma, 1978, as cited in Otieno et al., 2017)
Ngiga (as cited in Gibendi, 2017) states that…
|General mentions of websites and software||incorporate relevant information into the running text.||
The Reuben Marambii Library website (library.must.ac.ke) contains various useful resources.
Statistical software SPSS (version 25) was used to analyze the data.
Reference Entries (7th edition)
This guide summarizes the APA 7th edition guidelines of the APA Publication Manual.
Even though the reference structure varies depending on the source (e.g., a book, a website, or a video), they all share the same four components as outlined below:
- Author: who is responsible for creating the work?
- Date: when was the work published?
- Title: what is the work called?
- Source: where can the work be retrieved?
Nkanatha, J. K. (2022, June 28-30). Social media and fake news: boon or bane for journalism? [Paper Presentation]. The Inaugural Meru University of Science and Technology International Conference, Meru.
Kubai, J.T. and Owiti, B. (2022, June 28-30). Teacher training pathways for competency-based curriculum (CBC) in the university education in Kenya. [Paper Presentation]. The Inaugural Meru University of Science and Technology International Conference, Meru.
Three and above
Ndumia, E. C. et al. (2022, June 28-30). Ideological features in Kenya Supreme Court judgments. [Paper Presentation]. The Inaugural Meru University of Science and Technology International Conference, Meru.
APA style guides